magyar english
Helyszín
Megye:
Település:
Időpont:
Időtartam:
Ingyenes:
Típus:
Kulcsszó:
A fenti szempontok közül legalább egy megadása kötelező.
FACEBOOK
Tájékoztató
VIDÉKFEJLESZTÉSI MINISZTÉRIUM
Fertő-tavi Hidro-ökológiai Tájékoztató Rendszer
Természetvédelmi Információs Rendszer

 

SOPRONI TIT
„Az év emlőse az ürge 2015” programsorozat
Vadonleső
VARÁZSLATOS MAGYARORSZÁG
TAVASZI MADÁRLES
GPS kerékpáros útvonalak Sopron-Fertőd és Kapuvár-Beled kistérségek terültén
 
Feliratkozás hírlevélre
Kategoriák:
Név:
E-mail cím:
Szigetköz.eu
PaNaNet
 
 
 
AZ ÉV KIEMELT FAJAI -2015
FÁJA HALA
KÉTÉLTŰJE MADARA
 
» Management » Habitat restoration » About habitat restoration
About habitat restoration
 

What you need to know about habitat restoration 

 

Why is habitat restoration necessary?

 

Due to human activity the extension of natural habitats is decreasing all over the world. Due to the human presence lasting for thousands of years this process is in Europe even graver. The decrease in natural habitats lead to the endangerment of several species. First aim of nature conservation with habitat restorations is to raise the extension of natural habitats,  create natural ecological networks, finally preserve biodiversity.

Apart from conservation aspects economical aspects increasingly play a role. Human impacts (e.g. river regulation, mining) often have side effects (e.g. decrease in ground water level, salinization, erosion) that were not counted with at the beginning of the project. Although restoration of the original ecological state is more expensive than the project itself, it is worth to restore. Cleaner environment, natural habitats may lead to significant incomes to local people through other sections (e.g. tourism, agriculture).

 

The concept of habitat restoration

 

The concept of ecological restoration was defined by the management of the Society of Ecological Restoration (SER) in 1996. According to that ecological restoration is „an activity during which the properties of an area are changed consciously with the aim of creating an ecosystem similar to the original, indigenous one” (SER 1991). Restoration is meant not only in the sense of restoring biodiversity but also typical ecological processes and structures as well as sustainable traditional routine are included.

 

Types of habitat restoration

 

In international and Hungarian publications (Cairns 1986, Bradshaw 1987, Cairns and Heckman 1996, Göri et al. 1994, Aronson et al 1993) several classifications of habitat restoration types can be found. Although there are differences in denomination, finally 4 main categories of habitat restoration may be distinguished.

 

In the simplest case restoration of a given area doesn’t need any intervention because due to natural succession vegetation restores itself. This is typical for forest areas where grasslands established by former cultivation disappear completely within decades without mowing or grazing.

 

Often the original vegetation can still be found upon the area but in a degraded state. In this case significant advance may be achieved by forcing back the unfavorable effects. In the case of wetlands very often just restoring the original hydrological conditions proves to be enough. This type is referred to as habitat reconstruction or in some cases habitat enhancement.

 

Often not even traces of the original vegetation can be found on the area, so practically disappeared habitats have to be restored. In the case of abandoned strip mines this process starts with the deposition of a fertile layer of soil followed by the reintroduction of microbes and gradually vascular plants. This is usually referred to as rehabilitation.

 

Finally there are cases when the original habitat cannot be restored but the creation of another near-natural habitat is possible. There are also cases when so called “good” habitats evolve due to human interference. This type is called habitat creation.

 

Steps of habitat restoration

 

Habitat restoration have to be preceded each time by thorough surveying and planning that includes getting acquainted with the history and givens of the habitat.

During implementation first physical conditions (soil layer, water, pH, etc.) required by the habitat have to be secured. Species only may be reintroduced (if necessary) into suitable habitats.

 

Costs of habitat restoration

 

Costs of restoring natural habitats may be very high. An example for this is the restoration of the Kissimmee River in Florida. The river was regulated in the 1960-s (meanders were cut, dams built) as a result of what the 103 miles long meandering river became a 56 miles long canal. Due to regulation wintering bird population dropped to 10 %, the diversity of the fish fauna decreased, the eutrification of Lake Okeechobee, into whish the river flows – a result of agriculture – accelerated. Following the recognition of the harmful effects the restoration of the river started in 1997 as a result of public pressure. The duration of restoration is estimated to be12 years. While regulation in the 60-s cost only 20 million dollars, restoration costs are estimated as high as 435 million. Despite this the Congress of the USA approved the costs, because as a result of the project flood prevention costs will be decreased, and incomes from tourism increased.

 

 

Recommended literature

 

Aronson et al. (1993): Restoration and rehabilitation of degraded ecosystem in arid and semiarid lands. Restoration Ecology 1: 8-17.

Cairns, J. (1993): Is restoration ecology practical? Restoration Ecology 1.: 3-7.

Cairns, J. and Heckman, J.R. (1996): Restoration ecology: The state of an emerging field. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21: 167-189.

Eades, P., Bardsley, L., Giles, N. and Crofts, A. (2003): Wetland Restoration Manual. The Wildlife Trusts, Newark

Gilbert, O.L. és Anderson P (1998): Habitat creation and repair. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Göri Sz. et al. (1994): Vizes élőhelyek természetvédelmi kezelése a Hortobágyi Nemzeti Park területén. III. Magyar Ökológus Kongresszus összefoglalói. Szeged

Margóczi, K. (1998): Természetvédelmi biológia, JATE Press, Szeged.

 

   
 
2010. 04. 21. Oldal nyomtatása
Programnaptár
Turisztikai Programajánló 2015

NYÁRI TÁBOROK - 2015
Pályázati kiírások erdei iskola programban való részvétel támogatására
KOKOSZ-ÉGIGÉRŐ TANTEREM
Nyertes pályázataink
Eszterházi Express
BIKE s.o.s.
 
 
 
Túrabotos Természetjáró Klub
Helyi Termék - promóciós film
Fertő parti információk

Természetjáró Turista Magazin
Túra és Túratárs kereső közösségi oldal
 
Tanulmányi Erdőgazdaság Zrt.
©2005 A KvVM
Természetvédelmi Hivatala
neosoft&design